Whitebark pine declines may unravel the tree’s mutualism with Clark’s Nutcracker

A Clark’s Nutcracker perches in a whitebark pine. Photo by Frank D. Lospalluto/Flickr. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) Credit: Frank D. Lospalluto/Flickr. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) The relationship between the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an iconic tree of western mountaintops, and the Clark’s Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), a brash bird in the crow family, is often used as an […]