Ancient proteins help track early milk drinking in Africa

IMAGE: Cattle grazing in Entesekara in Kenya near the Tanzanian border view more  Credit: A. Janzen Tracking milk drinking in the ancient past is not straightforward. For decades, archaeologists have tried to reconstruct the practice by various indirect methods. They have looked at ancient rock art to identify scenes of animals being milked and at animal […]

Regulating the ribosomal RNA production line

IMAGE: A new cryo-EM study shows that the enzyme that makes RNA from a DNA template (RNA polymerase) is altered to slow the production of ribosomal RNA in the bacteria E…. view more  Credit: Murakami Laboratory, Penn State The enzyme that makes RNA from a DNA template is altered to slow the production of ribosomal RNA […]

Meta-Apo supports cheaper, quicker microbiome functional assessment

IMAGE: Meta-Apo algorithm improves 16S-based microbiome diagnoses view more  Credit: JING Gongchao A new algorithm may reduce the need for expensive, time-consuming whole-genome sequencing computations to understand how a microbiome functions. A team led by JING Gongchao of the Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and SU […]

Microbiome Search Engine 2 helps researchers explore microbiome space

IMAGE: Design of the Microbiome Search Engine 2 (MSE 2) view more  Credit: JING Gongchao Metagenomics – the study of genetic material from an environmental sample – is growing as species evolve or are discovered across the globe. To correlate the newly developed microbiomes with existing data sets, a team of researchers based in China has […]

Geisinger research identifies genetic risk factor for stroke

DANVILLE, Pa. – A team of Geisinger researchers has identified a common genetic variant as a risk factor for stroke, especially in patients older than 65. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) causes about a quarter of ischemic strokes worldwide and is the most common cause of vascular dementia. SVD can manifest as lesions on […]

How dietary choice influences lifespan in fruit flies

IMAGE: A fruit fly feeding on a banana view more  Credit: Sanjay Acharya (CC BY-SA 4.0 – https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0) Having a choice of foods may accelerate aging and shorten the lifespan of fruit flies, according to a study published today in the open-access eLife journal. While early experiments have shown that calorie restriction can extend lifespan, the current […]

Genetic rewiring behind spectacular evolutionary explosion in East Africa

IMAGE: Sampling cichlid fish tissues for genome and transcriptome sequencing in Tanzania and Zanzibar Archipelago. Tilapia and haplochromine cichlid fish species were sampled for associated studies on characterising genomic signatures of… view more  Credit: Dr Graham Etherington and Dr Tarang Mehta, Earlham Institue (EI) Genetic rewiring could have driven an evolutionary explosion in the shapes, sizes […]

New approach emerges to better classify, treat brain tumors

IMAGE: Dr. Jin-Xiong She and MD/PhD student Paul Tran. view more  Credit: Kim Ratliff, Augusta University Photographer AUGUSTA, Ga. (Jan. 19, 2021) – A look at RNA tells us what our genes are telling our cells to do, and scientists say looking directly at the RNA of brain tumor cells appears to provide objective, efficient evidence […]

Simulating evolution to understand a hidden switch

IMAGE: Using computer simulations built on reasonable assumptions and conducted under careful control, computational bioscientists can mimic real biological conditions. Starting with the original founding population (ancient phase), they can evolve… view more  Credit: © 2021 KAUST; Anastasia Serin Computer simulations of cells evolving over tens of thousands of generations reveal why some organisms retain a […]

Guppies have varying levels of self-control

IMAGE: Trinidadian guppies view more  Credit: University of Exeter Just like humans trying to stick to New Year’s resolutions, guppies have varying levels of self-control, a new study shows. Researchers from the University of Exeter and Ghent University studying the behaviours of Trinidadian guppies tested “inhibitory control” (suppressing unhelpful impulses or urges). The tiny fish first […]